Shijin Wang


2019

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TripleNet: Triple Attention Network for Multi-Turn Response Selection in Retrieval-Based Chatbots
Wentao Ma | Yiming Cui | Nan Shao | Su He | Wei-Nan Zhang | Ting Liu | Shijin Wang | Guoping Hu
Proceedings of the 23rd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL)

We consider the importance of different utterances in the context for selecting the response usually depends on the current query. In this paper, we propose the model TripleNet to fully model the task with the triple <context, query, response> instead of <context, response > in previous works. The heart of TripleNet is a novel attention mechanism named triple attention to model the relationships within the triple at four levels. The new mechanism updates the representation of each element based on the attention with the other two concurrently and symmetrically.We match the triple <C, Q, R> centered on the response from char to context level for prediction.Experimental results on two large-scale multi-turn response selection datasets show that the proposed model can significantly outperform the state-of-the-art methods.

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Cross-Lingual Machine Reading Comprehension
Yiming Cui | Wanxiang Che | Ting Liu | Bing Qin | Shijin Wang | Guoping Hu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Though the community has made great progress on Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC) task, most of the previous works are solving English-based MRC problems, and there are few efforts on other languages mainly due to the lack of large-scale training data.In this paper, we propose Cross-Lingual Machine Reading Comprehension (CLMRC) task for the languages other than English. Firstly, we present several back-translation approaches for CLMRC task which is straightforward to adopt. However, to exactly align the answer into source language is difficult and could introduce additional noise. In this context, we propose a novel model called Dual BERT, which takes advantage of the large-scale training data provided by rich-resource language (such as English) and learn the semantic relations between the passage and question in bilingual context, and then utilize the learned knowledge to improve reading comprehension performance of low-resource language. We conduct experiments on two Chinese machine reading comprehension datasets CMRC 2018 and DRCD. The results show consistent and significant improvements over various state-of-the-art systems by a large margin, which demonstrate the potentials in CLMRC task. Resources available: https://github.com/ymcui/Cross-Lingual-MRC

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A Span-Extraction Dataset for Chinese Machine Reading Comprehension
Yiming Cui | Ting Liu | Wanxiang Che | Li Xiao | Zhipeng Chen | Wentao Ma | Shijin Wang | Guoping Hu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Machine Reading Comprehension (MRC) has become enormously popular recently and has attracted a lot of attention. However, the existing reading comprehension datasets are mostly in English. In this paper, we introduce a Span-Extraction dataset for Chinese machine reading comprehension to add language diversities in this area. The dataset is composed by near 20,000 real questions annotated on Wikipedia paragraphs by human experts. We also annotated a challenge set which contains the questions that need comprehensive understanding and multi-sentence inference throughout the context. We present several baseline systems as well as anonymous submissions for demonstrating the difficulties in this dataset. With the release of the dataset, we hosted the Second Evaluation Workshop on Chinese Machine Reading Comprehension (CMRC 2018). We hope the release of the dataset could further accelerate the Chinese machine reading comprehension research. Resources are available: https://github.com/ymcui/cmrc2018

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IFlyLegal: A Chinese Legal System for Consultation, Law Searching, and Document Analysis
Ziyue Wang | Baoxin Wang | Xingyi Duan | Dayong Wu | Shijin Wang | Guoping Hu | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP): System Demonstrations

Legal Tech is developed to help people with legal services and solve legal problems via machines. To achieve this, one of the key requirements for machines is to utilize legal knowledge and comprehend legal context. This can be fulfilled by natural language processing (NLP) techniques, for instance, text representation, text categorization, question answering (QA) and natural language inference, etc. To this end, we introduce a freely available Chinese Legal Tech system (IFlyLegal) that benefits from multiple NLP tasks. It is an integrated system that performs legal consulting, multi-way law searching, and legal document analysis by exploiting techniques such as deep contextual representations and various attention mechanisms. To our knowledge, IFlyLegal is the first Chinese legal system that employs up-to-date NLP techniques and caters for needs of different user groups, such as lawyers, judges, procurators, and clients. Since Jan, 2019, we have gathered 2,349 users and 28,238 page views (till June, 23, 2019).

2018

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Dataset for the First Evaluation on Chinese Machine Reading Comprehension
Yiming Cui | Ting Liu | Zhipeng Chen | Wentao Ma | Shijin Wang | Guoping Hu
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis using Statistical and Prior Knowledge driven Features with Probabilistic Ensemble Enhancement
Ruiji Fu | Zhengqi Pei | Jiefu Gong | Wei Song | Dechuan Teng | Wanxiang Che | Shijin Wang | Guoping Hu | Ting Liu
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Natural Language Processing Techniques for Educational Applications

This paper describes our system at NLPTEA-2018 Task #1: Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis. Grammatical Error Diagnosis is one of the most challenging NLP tasks, which is to locate grammar errors and tell error types. Our system is built on the model of bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory with a conditional random field layer (BiLSTM-CRF) but integrates with several new features. First, richer features are considered in the BiLSTM-CRF model; second, a probabilistic ensemble approach is adopted; third, Template Matcher are used during a post-processing to bring in human knowledge. In official evaluation, our system obtains the highest F1 scores at identifying error types and locating error positions, the second highest F1 score at sentence level error detection. We also recommend error corrections for specific error types and achieve the best F1 performance among all participants.

2017

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Generating and Exploiting Large-scale Pseudo Training Data for Zero Pronoun Resolution
Ting Liu | Yiming Cui | Qingyu Yin | Wei-Nan Zhang | Shijin Wang | Guoping Hu
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Most existing approaches for zero pronoun resolution are heavily relying on annotated data, which is often released by shared task organizers. Therefore, the lack of annotated data becomes a major obstacle in the progress of zero pronoun resolution task. Also, it is expensive to spend manpower on labeling the data for better performance. To alleviate the problem above, in this paper, we propose a simple but novel approach to automatically generate large-scale pseudo training data for zero pronoun resolution. Furthermore, we successfully transfer the cloze-style reading comprehension neural network model into zero pronoun resolution task and propose a two-step training mechanism to overcome the gap between the pseudo training data and the real one. Experimental results show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art systems with an absolute improvements of 3.1% F-score on OntoNotes 5.0 data.

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Attention-over-Attention Neural Networks for Reading Comprehension
Yiming Cui | Zhipeng Chen | Si Wei | Shijin Wang | Ting Liu | Guoping Hu
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Cloze-style reading comprehension is a representative problem in mining relationship between document and query. In this paper, we present a simple but novel model called attention-over-attention reader for better solving cloze-style reading comprehension task. The proposed model aims to place another attention mechanism over the document-level attention and induces “attended attention” for final answer predictions. One advantage of our model is that it is simpler than related works while giving excellent performance. In addition to the primary model, we also propose an N-best re-ranking strategy to double check the validity of the candidates and further improve the performance. Experimental results show that the proposed methods significantly outperform various state-of-the-art systems by a large margin in public datasets, such as CNN and Children’s Book Test.

2016

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LSTM Neural Reordering Feature for Statistical Machine Translation
Yiming Cui | Shijin Wang | Jianfeng Li
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Consensus Attention-based Neural Networks for Chinese Reading Comprehension
Yiming Cui | Ting Liu | Zhipeng Chen | Shijin Wang | Guoping Hu
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Reading comprehension has embraced a booming in recent NLP research. Several institutes have released the Cloze-style reading comprehension data, and these have greatly accelerated the research of machine comprehension. In this work, we firstly present Chinese reading comprehension datasets, which consist of People Daily news dataset and Children’s Fairy Tale (CFT) dataset. Also, we propose a consensus attention-based neural network architecture to tackle the Cloze-style reading comprehension problem, which aims to induce a consensus attention over every words in the query. Experimental results show that the proposed neural network significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines in several public datasets. Furthermore, we setup a baseline for Chinese reading comprehension task, and hopefully this would speed up the process for future research.