Generalizing to Unseen Entities and Entity Pairs with Row-less Universal Schema

Patrick Verga, Arvind Neelakantan, Andrew McCallum


Abstract
Universal schema predicts the types of entities and relations in a knowledge base (KB) by jointly embedding the union of all available schema types—not only types from multiple structured databases (such as Freebase or Wikipedia infoboxes), but also types expressed as textual patterns from raw text. This prediction is typically modeled as a matrix completion problem, with one type per column, and either one or two entities per row (in the case of entity types or binary relation types, respectively). Factorizing this sparsely observed matrix yields a learned vector embedding for each row and each column. In this paper we explore the problem of making predictions for entities or entity-pairs unseen at training time (and hence without a pre-learned row embedding). We propose an approach having no per-row parameters at all; rather we produce a row vector on the fly using a learned aggregation function of the vectors of the observed columns for that row. We experiment with various aggregation functions, including neural network attention models. Our approach can be understood as a natural language database, in that questions about KB entities are answered by attending to textual or database evidence. In experiments predicting both relations and entity types, we demonstrate that despite having an order of magnitude fewer parameters than traditional universal schema, we can match the accuracy of the traditional model, and more importantly, we can now make predictions about unseen rows with nearly the same accuracy as rows available at training time.
Anthology ID:
E17-1058
Volume:
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 1, Long Papers
Month:
April
Year:
2017
Address:
Valencia, Spain
Venue:
EACL
SIG:
Publisher:
Association for Computational Linguistics
Note:
Pages:
613–622
URL:
https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/E17-1058
DOI:
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PDF:
https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/E17-1058.pdf